Adding images of I.W.W. ”stickerettes” to Wikipedia pages

Today is Wikipedia’s 20th anniversary, so it’s a good time to share some of my recent Wikipedia activities. For the past couple of years, I’ve been adding images of I.W.W. “stickerettes” to various Wikipedia pages. The stickerettes, which were published before 1925, are in the public domain, so copyright is not an issue.

Here is how I add images to Wikipedia:

You will first need to create an account or log into an existing account on Wikimedia Commons at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Main_Page.

After logging in, click on either the “Upload file” under “Participate” on the left – or on the blue “Upload” button on the upper right.

Read through page 1 of the Upload Wizard called “Learn” to determine if you can upload your image(s). You can only upload images that you created yourself or images that are freely licensed. According to the Upload Wizard, there are two main exceptions:

  • “You can upload someone else’s work if the author granted permission for anyone to use, copy, modify, and sell it;” or
  • “You can upload your photographs [image files] of old art, statues, and buildings (usually over 150 years old).”

For more on determining copyright, visit https://fairuse.stanford.edu/overview/faqs/copyright-basics/, which states that “all works published in the United States before 1925 are in the public domain.”

After reading through the “Learn” page, click on “Next” at the bottom right and go to “Select media files to share.” You can upload one file or multiple files at the same time.

Click on “Next” and go to the “Release rights” page:

  • Click on “These files are not my work.”
  • Then list Source and Author(s). In this case, I added “Bisbee Deportation Legal Papers and Exhibits (AZ 144). Special Collections, University of Arizona Libraries,” which is the correct and complete credit line for this collection.
  • Leave the next two Creative Commons section blank. In the Copyright section, click on “First published in the United States before 1925.” Leave the remaining sections blank.

On the” Describe” page:

  • Under “Caption,” use: I.W.W. “stickerettes” from Bisbee Deportation Legal Papers and Exhibits (AZ 144). Special Collections, University of Arizona Libraries.
  • Under “Description,” use: I.W.W. “stickerettes” were used as evidence through the deposition of William A. Cahill in the legal suit of Michael Simmons vs. the El Paso and Southern Railroad Company et al.
  • List “1919” as the date the work was created or first published (the date of the Simmons v EP&SW case).

On the “Add data” page:

  • Add “sticker.”

On the “Use” page, click on “Upload.”

This past weekend, I added six of the seven image files of 15 stickerettes from the Bisbee Deportation Legal Papers and Exhibits (AZ 144). Special Collections, University of Arizona Libraries to Wikimedia Commons (see earlier post about the Bisbee stickerettes). Now I need to track down which Wikipedia pages to which I can add them…. Stay tuned.

Additional notes:

The Bisbee Deportation Legal Papers and Exhibits in the University of Arizona Libraries’ Special Collections date to 1917-1919, so the stickerettes are considered in the public domain. The Arizona Archives Online has more information about the collection and its contents here.

“Takin’ it to the Street and Stickin’ it to the Man: Cultural and Political Resistance in Contemporary Sticker Art” – Part I

[Note: This blog post is based on the first national paper I gave on street art stickers for the annual College Art Association conference in February 2008 as part of a panel on “The Vernacular Print in Contemporary Art” chaired by Beauvais Lyons. I have updated some of the links and images to reflect more current resources.]

In this paper, I examine contemporary sticker art as a form of cultural and political resistance, using primary examples collected since 2003 from the United States, Germany, and Canada. In the first half of the paper, I provide an overview of the “how, “why,” “who,” and “what” that is communicated in contemporary sticker culture. In the latter half (forthcoming), I discuss specific stickers from Germany and the United States that focus on three broad themes: politics, culture and the media, and the environment.

Many of the grouped stickers in this presentation are from an exhibition that I organized in 2006 entitled “The Gallery Has A Posse” for St. Lawrence University, where I work as gallery director. (I’ll explain the “posse” reference later.) I also show images of stickers photographed on site, as well as screen shots from various websites, focusing in particular on the anti-authoritarian, anti-capitalist, anti-commercial, and anti-elitist messages that stickers convey. It’s easy, in fact, to demonstrate that stickers and sticker artists are “takin’ it to the street and stickin’ it to the Man.”

“The Gallery Has A Posse” exhibition card (exterior)

Some of the images I show today might be considered offensive, so please be forewarned. It’s also important to note that I am not discussing typical bumper stickers in this presentation. Rather, these stickers, also called street stickers or art stickers, typically run small in size, around 2×3 to 4×6 inches, or smaller. Premium vinyl stickers can be created easily through fast, cheap online commercial printing services where artists upload a digital file and, within a week, receive a hundred to several thousands of stickers. Such services can be found online through Sticker Robot, StickerNation, and Sticker Guy, among others.

Some artists create their own small editions of stickers, making photocopies at a local copy shop or doing their work on the job for free, which is, of course, one way of stickin’ it to the “Company Man.” Other artists liberate “HELLO-My-Name-Is” stickers and Sharpies from their employers, creating one-of-a-kind doodles and more detailed drawings, elaborate paintings, and collages. Unwittingly, the US Postal Service, Deutsche Post, and others have also become corporate sponsors in the sticker world by providing free mailing labels (see below). And like generations of agitprop artists before them, many sticker artists create multiples through stencil printing and silkscreen.

Publicly placed stickers are now ubiquitous in urban centers around the world, situated metaphorically at a busy intersection of imagery and content formed by hip-hop, punk, anarchy, and other forms of “culture jamming,” a term that refers to the process of transforming and subverting mass media. Often seen at eye level or just beyond reach, stickers grace every imaginable surface of the built environment—from light poles and traffic signs to construction sites and dumpsters. Stickers also adorn skateboards, musical instruments, and laptops, appealing to a hip and engaged youth culture and even a middle-aged woman like me.

In terms of naming, sticker artists function much like traditional graffiti artists from the last 35 to 40 years. Crispin Sartwell, while chair of Humanities and Sciences at the Maryland Institute College of Art, wrote,

“Most graffiti artists dub themselves with the name they use in their work.  In part, this is an attempt to undermine the use of names, [both] in the legal system and [in] modes of surveillance: to create a persona that worms its way underneath the forms of textual power. The idea is simultaneously to be hard to identify by power and massively famous outside it: to manufacture an unofficial name that does not appear on [a] birth certificate or other documents and then to broadcast it as far as [possible] in a culture underneath the official one.”

Nowadays, many sticker artists don’t identify themselves with a name per se, but bomb the streets with personal avatars like humanoid figures, robots, sheep, bunnies, hands, faces, four-leaf clovers, ants, flies, or plant forms. Aside from overtly political stickers, portraiture and signature stickers are among the most common forms of expression, whereby artists are tirelessly engaged in a D-I-Y form of self-promotion. As such, many artists use stickers as a means of “tagging” a public space, making it one’s own, at least temporarily.  Examples here from the mid-2000s include Obey Giant, Faile, 5003, RobotsWillKill, orkid man, Hek Tad, and Matt Siren.

In this context, tagging is a way of “hitting” a site. In a 1974 essay entitled The Faith of Graffiti, Norman Mailer, functioning in the role of new journalist, wrote,

“You hit your name and maybe something in the whole scheme of the system gives a death rattle. For now your name is over their name, over the subway manufacturer, the Transit Authority, the city administration. Your presence is on their presence; your alias hangs over their scene. There is a pleasurable sense of depth to the elusiveness of the meaning.”

Here Mailer describes the satisfaction of stickin’ it to the man, and his analysis is further revealed in an interview with “Cay” and “Junior 161,” two young street artists who, when asked about the significance of naming, declare, “The name is the faith of graffiti.” Organizers of a recent Berlin-based sticker exhibition also elaborate upon Mailer’s revelation,

“…unlike graffiti, […] stickers don’t have the gesture of destruction inherent in their form – [rather, they are a] gesture of connotation and satiric annotation. [Sticker] interventions are much more representative for a critical mind seeking to contribute to the social urban exchange….”

Fast forward to 2008. Stickering is a now a global phenomenon. Shepard Fairey’s Andre the Giant Has a Posse sticker, designed in 1989, is best-known in every counter-cultural context (and by now in many mainstream contexts), as are scores of variations in his ongoing, international “OBEY Giant” propaganda campaign.

Original Obey Giant sticker, 1989

In addition, hundreds of Obey Giant bootleg stickers reference the original Andre the Giant design, but feature a range of subjects, from “Charles Darwin has a Posse,” for example, to Vinny Raffa, the Dalai Lama, Emily the Strange, movie stars, serial killers, family members, and pets.

Obey bootlegs, 2006

Sticker artists, like other street artists, often project themselves as underground art activists and maintain a kind of guerrilla or gangsta’ profile on the street and online, posting on Websites and blogs, such as the Wooster Collective, PEEL Magazine’s SLAPS Stickerhead Forum, BOMIT, and several other international sites. [Note: many of these websites no longer exist in their original iterations.]

2008 screen shot
2008 screen shot

The web also serves as a means for artists to distribute their works. By posting and attaching image files of their stickers on social media like Flickr and elsewhere, artists make it possible for others to print and post their imagery in almost any location.

2008 screen shot

Flickr and other social media sites also provide a way of “tagging” images, where an online community of tens of thousands of viewers discuss and tag sticker photographs. Such “folksonomic” projects, which incorporate user-generated content or metadata, ironically subvert the elaborate structures of authority lists and controlled vocabularies that are the foundation of most institutional digital image collections. Dr. Jill Walker from the University of Bergen, Norway, describes this as a form of “distributed narrative,” in which time, space, and authorship are not unified, but are rather what she characterizes as being “across media, through the network, and … in the physical spaces that we live in.” I call this hybrid mix “Street Art 2.0.”

In keeping with their rebellious persona, many artists reject cultural co-optation by avoiding certain mainstream settings in order to keep their activities “on the streets.” Two years ago, for instance, I posted a request on an online “Stickerhead Forum,” asking if anyone would like to send me stickers for the exhibition I was organizing at St. Lawrence. I naively put “cathytedford” as my username and included the name of the gallery at SLU. Not surprisingly, one artist, “delOR,” chided me in response by posting, “keep it gangsta, and on the streets.” Another artist named “Zen” wrote back, too, stating, “the whole idea is not to ask… it’s to do… teacher man… that’s what makes the difference, your asking about it. Just do it. Like Mikey.” Chuckling to myself, I realized at the time that I had become a female version  of the Man! However, a young artist from Queens called “Plasma Slugs” eventually contacted me and came to campus to talk about his work and make stickers with students. I think it was the first time he’d ever filled out a W-9 tax form.

2004 screen shot – haha

Crispin Sartwell. Graffiti and Language. http://www.crispinsartwell.com/grafflang.htm. 2004 [Note: website unavailable in 2021.]

Kurlanksy, Mervyn and Jon Naar. The Faith of Graffiti. (NY: Praeger Publishers, 1974).

“THE ABC: power and communication/the semiotics of resistance” exhibition organized by Rebel:Art Media Foundation and Memefest, Neurotitan comic store and gallery, Berlin, 2005. See http://www.theabc-org. [Note: website unavailable in 2021.]

Walker, Dr. Jill. “Distributed Narratives: Telling Stories Across Networks.” Presented at AoIR 5.0, Brighton, September 21, 2004.

Confirmed date for early I.W.W. “stickerettes”

Some time ago, I learned about I.W.W. “stickerettes” that are in the University of Arizona’s Special Collections as part of the Bisbee Deportation Legal Papers and Exhibits AZ 114. I had taken screen shots of them to do additional research, but the website they were found on is now no longer active. What is useful, however, is that I can now identify the original 15 designs that were the earliest I.W.W political stickers in the United States (women’s suffrage stickers and stamps were also produced at this time). I’m pretty sure I.W.W leader and commercial artist Ralph Chaplin designed most if not all of these stickerettes. The advertisement below is from the I.W.W. journal called Solidarity dating to April 7, 1917.

Below are the I.W.W. stickerettes that were used as evidence pertaining to the “suit of Michael Simmons vs. the El Paso and Southwestern Railroad Company et al. in the Superior Court of Cochise County” related to the Bisbee Deportation in 1917.

Exhibit 4-7
Exhibit 8-12
Exhibit 13-17
Exhibit 155, 160, 164, 166
Exhibit 167-171
Exhibit 172-176
Exhibit 177-178

Here then, for the record, are the 15 designs dating to 1917. They are all included in my collection.

The Government Has Blood on Its Hands

An article in The Washington Post this past week entitled A Death Every 30 Seconds revealed this sobering statistic regarding the COVID-19 crisis, which is currently at its highest rate of infection in the United States since the pandemic began. The article states that “every time you listen to Bing Crosby’s ‘White Christmas,’ about five people have died of the virus between the beginning and the end of the song…. On Sept. 12, the number of new cases began to increase, rising from about 34,000 new cases a day to, at this point, more than 219,000. The number of deaths from covid-19 has similarly ballooned, rising from 728 to nearly 2,600 a day.”

The WaPo headline reminded me of a sticker from the 1980s by an AIDS activist artist collective called Gran Fury that shows a bloody hand with the text, “The Government Has Blood on Its Hands” and “One AIDS Death Every Half Hour.” Someone used a marker to cross off the “One” on this sticker and write “3” over it.

Christian LiClair’s article about the Gran Fury image lays out an important point:

“The image of the bloody trace is especially striking in the context of AIDS, since blood plays a crucial part in negotiating the disease and thus advanced to a collective symbol of fear: After a virus was detected as the cause for the immunodeficiency syndrome, blood was not only known as one possible medium of contamination but also served as the site for the virus detection – and as a consequence thereof as a marker of an identity as the sero-positive other. In contrast, Gran Fury’s blood trail signifies a murder: The death of the absent individual is thus not articulated as a consequence on behalf of the HIV-positive individual and the infected blood, but as the result of a political system (italics mine).

I wonder what sort of image and text would work today for a political graphic sticker regarding the coronavirus?

Meanwhile, in the United States:

“Slap Me Baby” interview

Folks from the Slap Me Baby sticker collective in Switzerland contacted me in the spring of 2020 to submit an essay on I.W.W. “stickerettes” and to respond to some interview questions for their next zine. They also sent me some great artists’ and political stickers, which are in the queue to be scanned and catalogued into the Street Art Graphics digital archive. Zine #3 can be purchased on the Slap Me Baby website here.

cover of zine #3
Slap Me Baby #3

I read the interview again today and decided to publish it on Stickerkitty, too.

Can you describe in short words how your interest in stickers began and how it found its way into your academic work?

I first discovered publicly placed stickers while visiting Berlin in 2003. It changed my entire relationship to that city and to every other city I’ve ever visited since that time. I have spent hundreds, probably thousands, of hours roaming around cities looking for stickers. At the time, I also initiated a digital archive at the university where I work as gallery director in order to catalogue what I was finding, and for teaching and research. Many students have helped with the project over the years. I’ve integrated stickers into the curriculum through class discussions, traveling exhibitions, lectures, and hands-on workshops. You can read more about the archive on the Artstor Blog.

Are there countries, regions or cities that you think have an outstanding sticker culture?

Hands down, yes, Berlin is unparalleled in terms of a thriving sticker culture, as are parts of NYC and Montreal, the latter of which are both geographically close enough for me to make regular trips to look for stickers (at least before the pandemic). Berlin and Montreal are both cities marked by conflict and struggle, which affects what you see in the streets.

What distinguishes the sticker in public space from the countless images we see day by day in the feeds of online platforms?

The images found online are all mediated and equalized by the screen. Stickers in real life have materiality and texture. Paper stickers are different than vinyl stickers. Hand-drawn postals are different than stenciled or commercially printed stickers. Stickers have personalities. Some shout; others whisper. Stickers are made by real human beings who have something they want to communicate to the world around them.

Is there a “danger” of an institutionalization of the sticker game, similar to what happened to graffiti with commercial street art, or do you see a chance in it?

As someone who has organized sticker exhibitions, i.e., taking stickers out of their original context and putting them into galleries, I see how that changes the meaning and intent of stickers. I don’t see it as a problem, however. It’s just different. Students who visit the sticker exhibitions love them. Artists have also been keen to get involved. It’s important to acknowledge the context in which stickers are made and viewed, and to avoid any sort of commercialization. I do my work in an educational, non-profit environment, which makes a big difference.

Do you have one or more personal favorite artists who make stickers?

I love just about every sticker I come across, to be honest, but I’m really drawn to one-of-a-kind handmade stickers. They’re usually so earnest. Or mischievous. Or silly. It’s all good.

We have the impression that there are more female artists who make stickers than in graffiti. Do you share this impression?

I’m more familiar with stickers than with the graffiti world, but I know that Montreal’s Under Pressure graffiti festival in August every year has made it a point to feature female artists. My friend Oliver Baudach at Hatch Kingdom in Berlin has also done a wonderful job for years working with female sticker artists. We recently organized a traveling exhibition called She Slaps: Street Arts Stickers by Women Artists From Around the World.

What will the Stickergame look like in 20 years? Do we have to expect major upheavals, new technical possibilities, increased acceptance, stronger repression or something completely different?

That’s a great question. I’ve wondered that, too, since I’ve been stickering for the past 17+ years. I think the motivation and reason to make stickers will continue. It’s the neighborhoods that will change, usually due to urban development and gentrification. Certain parts of Manhattan in the early 2000s were peppered with stickers. Today, those same streets have been stripped clean in favor of luxury condos and shopping centers. But sticker artists will find other places to share their creations. They are unstoppable.

Female artists featured in “Street Art Graphics” digital archive

In 2017, after receiving a faculty research grant from the German Academic Exchange Service to continue cataloguing stickers for the Street Art Graphics digital archive, I spent four weeks in Berlin collecting political stickers and learning about the issues they communicated. My collaborator, Oliver Baudach, founder and director of the Hatch Kingdom Sticker Museum, also identified 954 original, unused stickers from his collection of street art stickers for me to scan while I was there, of which 322 were done by female artists.

Scanning at Hatch Kingdom, 2017
Scanning at Hatch Kingdom, 2017

In 2019, with a second grant from the U.S. Council of Independent Colleges’ Consortium on Digital Resources for Teaching and Research, Oli and I organized a traveling exhibition called SHE SLAPS: Street Art Stickers by Women Artists from Around the World, which premiered at the Richard F. Brush Art Gallery at St. Lawrence University (Canton, NY) in the fall of 2019. (See my previous post about the project here.) In preparation for the show, Oli put out a call for new donations and came to campus with an additional 446 stickers by female artists.

Arline Wolfe and Oli Baudach at SLU, 2019
Organizing sticker boards for “SHE SLAPS” exhibition, 2019

Now, three years later from when this all began, I am delighted to announce that we’ve added 762 stickers by female artists to the Street Art Graphics digital archive. That’s 23.1% of stickers in the collection that currently numbers 3,296. There are undoubtedly more stickers by women than that percentage, but those are the ones that have been identified by Oli. Special thanks to SLU’s Arline Wolfe who oversaw the cataloguing of these stickers with help in 2017 from Tyler Senecharles, Class of 2020 (pictured below) and in 2019-20 from Kayla Edmunds, Class of 2021, and Anica Koontz-Miller, Class of 2022.

Tyler Senecharles, SLU ’20, cataloguing stickers, 2019

Oli is undoubtedly one of the world’s leading expert on street art stickers. He keeps meticulous records on artists’ names, geographic locations, and dates, which are so important in cataloguing these items. “Very German,” he’d say. (Note: there are another 632 scans of stickers from 2017 to put in the cataloguing hopper when the time comes.)

Office at Hatch Kingdom, 2017
Oli is part of the SLU family, ca. 2015

Here is how to get to the female artists in the Street Art Graphics digital archive: Click on https://library.artstor.org/#/collection/87730635. Type in “female artists” in the search bar (without quotes). You’ll see 1,027 results. Scroll down on the left to Contributor and click on St. Lawrence University for 762 stickers by female artists.

Working from home during the COVID-19 crisis: Post #3

Working from home during the COVID-19 crisis: Post #3

Lophophora williamsii

I continue to work from home on digital image collection projects that I outlined in my first post from this COVID-19 series, focusing now on a series of confocal miscroscopy images generated by two faculty at St. Lawrence University: Jill Pflugheber, Microscopy Specialist, and Dr. Steven F. White, Lewis Professor of Modern Languages and Literatures. This digital project grew out of an exhibition this past spring at the Richard F. Brush Art Gallery at SLU called Microcosms: A Homage to the Sacred Plants of the Americas. Here is the exhibition text panel that the two faculty wrote to accompany the printed images:

“Confocal microscopy, also known as confocal laser scanning microscopy, is a specialized optical imaging technique that provides contact-free, non-destructive measurements of three-dimensional shapes. In this case, plants considered sacred by indigenous groups of the Americas were scanned at St. Lawrence University’s microscopy and imaging center. The procedure gathers information from a narrow depth of field, while simultaneously eliminating out-of-focus glare, as well as permitting the creation of optical sections through biological samples. Images are built over time by gathering photons emitted from fluorescent chemical compounds naturally contained within the plants themselves, creating a vivid and precise colorimetric display.

Psychotria viridis

To pay homage to sacred plants revered by indigenous groups throughout the Americas is a way of honoring the entire world in a time of environmental emergency. The exhibition—at the juncture of art, technology, and science—magnifies life in ways that may alter how humans perceive other living entities from our shared and threatened biosphere in more egalitarian terms. The plants reveal themselves as 21st-century extensions of biomorphic forms that were the genesis of abstract works by artists such as Wassily Kandinsky and Paul Klee one hundred years previous. Some of the plants contain the most potent psychoactive agents on the planet and serve as intermediaries that have enabled native communities to communicate with their ancestors, wage war on the enemies of their land, conceptualize entire cosmogonies, and maintain a nearly impossible equilibrium. Perhaps each stoma, trichome, and patterned fragment of xylem and vascular tissue in these vital portraits is not only a way into previously unseen vegetal realms, but also a way out of our collective crisis.”

As a side note, Steven is co-editor of Ayahuasca Reader: Encounters with the Amazon’s Sacred Vine (Synergetic Press, 2018). The gallery has presented two other exhibitions based on Steven’s research in this area with world-renowned ethnobotanist Luis Eduardo Luna: Inner Visions: Sacred Plants, Art, and Spirituality in 2016 (+ press release), and Visions that the Plants Gave Us in 1999 (+ more info here).

Diplopterys cabrerana

Creating metadata fields for this collection was also time-consuming for different reasons, but fun overall. The “data dictionary and cataloguing guide” that I created is listed at the end of this post, but here are some general points to make with regard to the work I’ve been doing:

  • I finally figured out how to use RightsStatements.org most effectively for this and other digital image collections at SLU. From the website: “RightsStatements.org provides a set of standardized rights statements that can be used to communicate the copyright and re-use status of digital objects to the public. Our rights statements are supported by major aggregation platforms such as the Digital Public Library of America and Europeana. The rights statements have been designed with both human users and machine users (such as search engines) in mind and make use of semantic web technology.”
  • I also figured out how to use the Creative Commons licenses most effectively for SLU digital image collections. This one was easy because the Microcosms images are copyright-protected by the two faculty.
  • Our cataloguing platform, Jstor Forum, is more nimble now than when I created the Street Art Graphics digital archive in the platform’s predecessor, Shared Shelf, in 2015. (Sorry, but who comes up with these ridiculous platform names, lol?) There are many more “Linked Authority Fields” embedded within most metadata fields that link to several lists of terms, such as the Art & Architecture Thesaurus (AAT), the Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH), and the Thesaurus of Geographic Names (TGN)—some of which are listed on the Library of Congress’s full Linked Data Service website.
  • Despite the funny name, I really like the Jstor Forum admin and cataloguing environments. Both are extremely user-friendly and intuitive, and the published collections emphasize the images in ways other platforms don’t. (I’m talking to you, ContentDM.)

Microcosms: Sacred Plants of the Americas

Data Dictionary and Cataloguing Guidelines

(with examples for peyote in this document)

Temporary album in Flickr: https://www.flickr.com/photos/slu-art-gallery/albums/72157713729253121

AAT = Art & Architecture Thesaurus

LCSH = Library of Congress Subject Headings

TGN = Thesaurus of Geographic Names

PLANT DETAILS (i.e., “work”)

1. Common Name: Linked Authority Field (AAT)

Common name of plant. Use Linked Authority Lists based on AAT and LCSH. [Accept multiple values.] Ex: Peyote

2. Genus: Linked Authority Field

Genus of plant. Use Linked Authority Lists based on AAT and LCSH. Ex: Lophophora

3. Species: Linked Authority Field

Species of plant. Use Linked Authority Lists based on AAT, LCSH, and “Microcosms: Species.” Ex: Lophophora williamsii

4. Indigenous Name: Linked Authority Field

Cultural names of the plant. Use Linked Authority Lists based on AAT, LCSH, and “Microcosms: Indigenous Names” (list based on Steven White’s exhibition labels). [Accept multiple values.]

5. Specimen Source: List Field

Person or institution that provided the plant or seed. List provided by Steven White. [Accept multiple values.] Possibly change this to Linked Authority Field?

6. Image View Description: Text Area

Text that describes the content and context of the work, including comments and an interpretation that may supplement, qualify, or explain the physical characteristics, subject, circumstances of creation or discovery, or other information about the work. (Jill Pflugheber to describe plant section.)

7. Subject: Linked Authority Field

Terms that identify, describe, and/or interpret what is depicted in and by a work. Use Linked Authority Fields based on AAT, LCSH, and TGN.

8. Culture (Linked Authority Field)

Name of the culture, people, or nationality from which the plant is used. Use Linked Authority Fields based on AAT and LCSH. [Accept multiple values.] Refer to exhibition labels that Steve supplied.

9. Ethnobotanical Use/Cultural Significance: Text Area

Dr. Steven White to write ~100 words. (Map to Description in Dublin Core.)

LOCATION OF PLANTS

10. Artstor Country: List Field (Required)

A type of “nationality” field, though not in adjectival form; country refers to the modern name of the country from which the artist came. A list of those currently in use by Artstor is provided. [Accept multiple values.]

11. Geographic Location: Linked Authority Field

Geographic location of the plant. Use Linked Authority Field based on TGN. [Accept multiple values.]

DATES OF CONFOCAL IMAGES

12. Image Date: Text Field

Date or range of dates associated with the particular view captured in the image. (Jill Pflugheber will provide acquisition dates.) Ex: 29 Mar 2020

13. Artstor Earliest Date: Number Field (Required)

Year that broadly delimits the beginning of an implied date span. Add five years from date of capture.

14. Artstor Latest Date: Number Field (Required)

Year that broadly delimits the end of an implied date span. Subtract five years from date of capture.

ABOUT THE CONFOCAL IMAGES

15. Artstor Classification: List Field (Required)

Term used to categorize a work by grouping it together with other works on the basis of similar characteristics, including materials, form, shape, function, etc. A list of the 16 terms accepted by Artstor is provided. Use: Science, Technology, and Industry

16. Work Type: Linked Authority Field (AAT)

Term or terms identifying the specific kind of object or work being described. Use Linked Authority Field based on Art and Architecture Thesaurus. Use “confocal microscopy” as default for all records.

17. Laser Excitation Wavelengths: Text Field (Default) (Map to Description)

Jill Pflugheber to provide. Use “488nm=green, 561nm=red, 640nm=blue” as default for all records.

OTHER

18. Repository: Text Field (Default)

The name and geographic location of the repository that is currently responsible for the work. Use “St. Lawrence University, Canton, NY (USA)” as default for all records.

19. SLU Project Coordinators: Text Field (Default)

Names and roles of individuals that played a role in the creation of the image. Use “Jill Pflugheber, Microscopy Specialist, and Dr. Steven White, Lewis Professor of Modern Languages and Literatures” as default for all records.

20. Notes: Text Area

Any additional misc. information to be shared publicly.

21. Local Notes: Text Area (Hidden)

Internal information not to be shared publicly. Field should be hidden but searchable.

22. Rights: Text Field

The copyright status of the digital object. Recommended best practice is to use a controlled statement from RightsStatements.org. Use “Image: Copyright 2020 by Jill Pflugheber and Dr. Steven F. White (Rights Statement – In Copyright http://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/)” as default for all records.

23. License: Text Field

The terms under which the digital object may be used by others. Recommended best practice is to use a controlled statement from CreativeCommons.org. Use “Use of this image is in accordance with Creative Commons by Attribution-NonCommercial-No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND)” as default for all records.

24. Original Filename: Text Field (Hidden)

Unique numeric or alpha numeric identification, usually a filename, of the original image from Jill Pflugheber. Field should be hidden but searchable.

25. Revised Filename: Text Field (Hidden)

Unique numeric or alpha numeric identification, usually a filename, of the revised image from Jo Skiff. Field should be hidden but searchable.

**NOTE: After the “Fields” are created, all of the fields and the order of the fields need to be re-created in the “Cataloging Form Fields” tab.

Useful websites

Jstor Global Plants (hoping to submit our collection to Jstor in addition to Artstor and DPLA)

World Flora Online

Possibly NAPRALERT (requires registration approval)

Native American Ethnobotany Database

Entheology: Plants (for indigenous plant names and cultures)

USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service Culturally Significant Plants

USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service Classification

Useful Tropical Plants Database

DPLA and Wikimedia Commons

In other news, I took a webinar last week on April 21, 2020, sponsored by the Digital Public Library of America and the Wikimedia Foundation, that focused on increasing the discoverability and use of digital media. A system is being set up to upload images from DPLA into Wikimedia Commons that can then be inserted into Wikipedia pages, funded by a grant from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation.

I’ve already done a little of this with I.W.W. “stickerettes” or “silent agitators” in the Street Art Graphics digital archive. This past year, for example, I uploaded images for the following Wikipedia pages: Silent agitators, “Black Cat” on Anarchist symbolism, “Scab” on Strikebreaker, and “Foundation of the Industrial Workers of the World” under Bill Haywood.

Anyhoo, I reached out to the webinar organizers and expressed my enthusiasm to participate in this endeavor. Given past support for the Street Art Graphics digital archive from the U.S. Council of Independent Colleges, I’m hoping they will contact me. Stay tuned!

Working from home during the COVID-19 crisis: Post #2

Today’s online text chat with Jstor Support:

Catherine Tedford

Apr 6, 15:45 EDT 

Chat started: 2020-04-06 07:32 PM UTC

(07:32:23 PM) Catherine Tedford: Hello! I am cleaning up some metadata fields in St. Lawrence University’s Street Art Graphics collection and trying to revise some text in the Rights field. I don’t seem to have a way to do that myself. Is that something you do on your end?

The sentence currently reads like this:
For information about the St. Lawrence University Street Art Graphics Digital Archive, see http://www.stlawu.edu/gallery/copyright/.

And I’d like it to read like this:
See http://www.stlawu.edu/gallery/copyright/.

I’m also not seeing default text in my Usage field show up in ADL. It hadn’t been mapped correctly, but I fixed that today and still don’t see it.

Thanks in advance for your help!
(07:32:27 PM) *** EJ joined the chat ***
(07:32:37 PM) EJ: Hi Catherine. Thanks for contacting JSTOR Forum Support!
(07:32:52 PM) EJ: Let me open up your project so I can take a look
(07:33:07 PM) Catherine Tedford: Great, thanks!
(07:35:18 PM) EJ: Are you working with the JSTOR Publishing target or the Artstor publishing target
(07:35:19 PM) EJ: ?
(07:35:29 PM) Catherine Tedford: Both, I think.
(07:35:38 PM) Catherine Tedford: But ADL, for sure.
(07:36:10 PM) EJ: OK, the JSTOR one will probably have to be done on our end. That functionality is brand new as you know, so it requires some intervention from our developers.
(07:36:16 PM) EJ: For the ADL one, I’ll do some testing now
(07:36:42 PM) Catherine Tedford: Perfect.
(07:36:46 PM) EJ: For the rights statement, if you open the ADL publishing target for the project in Admin, you’ll see the option to edit.
(07:37:01 PM) Catherine Tedford: okay, one sec…
(07:37:20 PM) EJ: Thanks for checking!
(07:37:43 PM) Catherine Tedford: There it is. Thank you! Can you help with my other question, too?
(07:38:29 PM) EJ: Sure! Did you update and map that field for records that had already been published? If so, you’ll need to republish them to make the change go through. If it’s a big collection, I can also do the reindexing for you from my end.
(07:38:59 PM) Catherine Tedford: Oh, I see. If you could do it on your end, that would be great.
(07:39:08 PM) Catherine Tedford: It’s a pretty big collection.
(07:39:38 PM) EJ: OK. I’ll start running that now and it should be complete by tomorrow, so I will check back in with you then!
(07:39:43 PM) EJ: Thanks for taking a look at this!
(07:40:22 PM) Catherine Tedford: Very good. Thanks again, I appreciate it. I love how fluid this system is, but I get a hiccup every now and then. 🙂
(07:41:23 PM) EJ: I have the exact same problem sometimes because there’s just so much to keep track of! Let us know if we can help with anything else, and if you have questions about the JSTOR target I can pass those along to the development team as well.
(07:41:46 PM) Catherine Tedford: Sounds good. Take care!
(07:41:56 PM) EJ: You too! Stay well!

Working from home during the COVID-19 crisis: Post #1

Amidst the COVID-19 crisis, I’ve decided to write about some of the work I’m doing for St. Lawrence University, where I serve as gallery director. I’m hoping I’ll still write about street art stickers here on Stickerkitty, but I’ve been too distracted lately to put my energies there. I’ve also decided to post some materials I’ve compiled over the past few years on family history, especially regarding my father, Rev. Dr. Duane W. Smith, who was active in the U.S. civil rights, women’s rights, and prison reform movements throughout his life. I’ve debated on posting about my dad for several months, and not sure if this was the right forum for it, but now seems like a good time to do so. More on that to follow later.

Non-essential SLU employees were directed to work from home as of Monday, March 23, though the University was on spring break the week before, so things were already pretty quiet on campus. Given that the gallery will now be physically closed until at least June, I’ve decided that the gallery staff (me and Carole Mathey, the assistant director) will focus on three things: digital collection projects (with help from Arline Wolfe, the library’s arts metadata technician), helping the art & art history department’s senior “exhibition,” and student and faculty engagement through social media. This is a version of an email I sent to my supervisor, the dean of academic affairs, last week:

  1. Earlier this year, Jstor contacted me and Eric Williams-Bergen about publishing the Street Art Graphics (SAG) digital archive directly to Jstor (in addition to it currently being published in Artstor and the Digital Public Library of America (DPLA). SLU would be one of the early image contributors to Jstor. They have now set everything up for me to do this, which I’ll be working on this week.
  2. I’m adding French language stickers to the SAG archive for an upcoming assignment in Eloise Brezault’s FR102 class. This follows assignments that Marina Llorente and Brook Henkel have done previously in other Modern Languages courses (specifically Spanish and German).
  3. The gallery will also publish the ~70 confocal images from Steven White’s and Jill Pflugheber’s Microcosms exhibition in Jstor, Artstor, and the DPLA. This is an important collection in terms of content that is unparalleled internationally. I anticipate a high degree of interest from the science/art community over this collection. Since it’s an entirely new collection, it’s going to take a little time to figure out metadata fields, etc., but totally do-able. [Steve teaches in Modern Languages and Jill teaches in the Biology department.]
  4. As mentioned in a previous email, we’re also creating a new Japanese Ukiyo-e and Mokuhanga Prints image collection for Melissa Schulenberg’s printmaking and First-Year Seminar students. The collection will be based on prints in SLU’s permanent collection.
  5. We’re also helping Sarah Knobel with her SYE “exhibition,” though we’re not sure yet what platform will be used.

Focusing first on the Japanese print collection, I spent a few days last week compiling a “data dictionary and cataloguing guide,” based on templates created by the Visual Resources Association and Artstor. We can also add customized metadata fields as needed. The dictionary and guide is included at the end of this post.

Ralph Kiggell, Yotsuya Schoolgirls,
water-based woodcut print on tosa kozo; mokuhanga, SLU 2013.19

Yesterday, I configured the metadata fields in Jstor Forum, the cataloguing environment that then publishes content to “targets” (Artstor, Jstor, DPLA).


The next step was to create the cataloguing form in which we will enter metadata (in this case, textual data about visual images).

Later today, I will do the last step, which is to make sure our metadata fields are mapped to the right targets. I need to do some research to remember how to do this, but luckily Jstor Forum has a robust online support system, and I was able to chat with someone yesterday via text when I ran into a few snags.

The last time I did all of this was in 2015 for the Street Art Graphics digital archive, when I had someone from Artstor guide me through all of the steps. This time, I’m on my own and needless to say, it’s slow going, but fun. One has to determine what sort of data about an image would be useful for teaching and research and then work backwards to figure out the cataloguing.

Here below is what I’ve come up with so far. I grouped most of the fields together based on how we do 3×5-inch labels for artworks in an exhibition (artist, title, date, medium, dimensions, credit line) and left the others at the end.

Japanese Ukiyo-e and Mokuhanga Prints from St. Lawrence University’s Permanent Collection: Data Dictionary and Cataloguing Guidelines

(All fields are public unless otherwise noted.)

ARTIST

1. Creator: Linked Authority Field

Name, brief biographical information, and roles (if necessary) of the named creator or creators in the design and production of the work, presented in a syntax suitable for display to the end-user and including any necessary indications of uncertainty, ambiguity, and nuance. Controlled list is based on Shared Shelf Names, ULAN and Library of Congress Name Authority File (NAF).

TITLE

2. Title: Text Field

Titles, identifying phrases, or names given to a work of art, architecture, or material culture.

3. Title – Alternative: Text Field

Additional or variant text. 

4. Title – Translation: Text Field

Translation of title into English.

MEDIUM

5. Artstor Classification: List Field

Term used to categorize a work by grouping it together with other works on the basis of similar characteristics, including materials, form, shape, function, etc. A list of the 16 terms accepted by Artstor may be provided.

6. Work Type: Linked Authority Field

Term or terms identifying the specific kind of object or work being described. Controlled List is based on AAT.

7. Materials/Techniques: Linked Authority Field

Indication of the substances or materials used in the creation of a work, as well as any implements, production or manufacturing techniques, processes, or methods incorporated in its fabrication, presented in a syntax suitable for display to the end-user and including any necessary indications of uncertainty, ambiguity, and nuance. Controlled List is based on AAT.

8. Style – Period: Linked Authority Field

Term that identifies the named, defined style, historical or artistic period, movement, group, or school whose characteristics are represented in the work being catalogued. Controlled List is based on AAT.

9. State/Edition: Text Field

Description of the state of the work and/or the edition of the work; used primarily for prints and other multiples.

10. Inscriptions: Text Field

Description or transcription of any distinguishing or identifying physical lettering, annotations, texts, markings, or labels that are affixed, applied, stamped, written, inscribed, or attached to the work, excluding any mark or text inherent in the materials of which the work was made.

DATE

11. Date: Text Field

Concise description of the date or range of dates associated with the creation, design, production, presentation, performance, construction, or alteration of the work or its components, presented in a syntax suitable for display to the end-user and including any necessary indications of uncertainty, ambiguity, and nuance.

12. Artstor Earliest Date: Number Field

Year that broadly delimits the beginning of an implied date span.

13. Latest Date: Number Field

Year that broadly delimits the end of an implied date span.

OTHER

14. Measurements: Text Field

Information about the dimensions, size, or scale of the work, presented in a syntax suitable for display to the end-user and including any necessary indications of uncertainty, ambiguity, and nuance. Ex: 8 x 10 inches (plate); 12 x 14 inches (sheet)

15. Artstor Country: List Field

A type of “nationality” field, though not in adjectival form; country refers to the modern name of the country from which the artist came. A list of those currently in use by Artstor may be provided. [Accept multiple values.]

16. Location: Linked Authority Field

Geographic location of the item/creator (City or City, State). Controlled List is based on Thesaurus of Geographic Names (TGN).

17. Language: Linked Authority Field

Language or languages in which the item is written.  Controlled List is based on Library of Congress ISO 639-1 Languages and AAT.

18. Description: Text Area

Text that describes the content and context of the work, including comments and an interpretation that may supplement, qualify, or explain the physical characteristics, subject, circumstances of creation or discovery, or other information about the work.

19. Subject: Linked Authority Field

Terms that identify, describe, and/or interpret what is depicted in and by a work. Controlled List is based on Thesaurus f Geographic Names, AAT, and Library of Congress Subject Headings.

20. Repository: Text Field

The name and geographic location of the repository that is currently responsible for the work.

Use: Richard F. Brush Art Gallery at St. Lawrence University (Canton, NY)

21. SLU ID Number: Text Field

The gallery-assigned unique numeric or alphanumeric identification of the image.

22. Rights: List Field

The copyright status of the digital object. Recommended best practice is to use a controlled statement from RightsStatements.org. Ex: Depending on date, choose either:

23. License: List Field (DO NOT USE)

The terms under which the digital object may be used by others. License text “Use of this image is in accordance with Artstor’s Terms and Conditions of Use” will appear automatically.

24. Exhibition History: List Field

Exhibition history. Use Controlled List. [Accept multiple values.]

25. Notes: Text Area

Any additional misc. information to be shared publicly.

26. Local Notes: Text Area (Hidden)

Internal information not to be shared publicly. Field should be hidden but searchable.

27. Original Filename: Text Field (Hidden)

Original image filename. Field should be hidden but searchable.

28. Student Cataloguer: List Field

Select name from Controlled List.

Appendix: Reference Words (authorities, schemata, thesauri)

Art and Architecture Thesaurus (AAT)

Cataloging Cultural Objects (CCO)

Categories for the Description of Works of Art (CDWA)

CDWA-lite

Iconclass

Library of Congress Name Authority File (LCNAF)

Library of Congress Subject Authority File (LCSAF)

Thesaurus of Geographic Names (TGN)

Union List of Artist Names (ULAN)

VRA Core 4.0

German 103 Writing Assignment – SLU Fall 2019

In the fall of 2019, St. Lawrence University students in Dr. Brook Henkel’s German 103 class incorporated contemporary political stickers from Germany for a writing assignment, similar to what his students did in 2017 and in 2018. (Click on those two links for the actual writing assignment, preparatory readings, etc.). The work of two students, Stefan Dragićević ’22 and Sophie Lehmann ’20, is featured below. Thanks also to Brendan Reilly ’20 for the German-to-English translations.

Note: the right-wing NPD and Freiheit/Islamismus stickers pictured below were donated to me in 2017 by Irmela Mensah-Schramm, a 74-year old Berlin-based woman who has devoted much of her adult life to removing symbols of hate in Germany. NDP stands for Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands or National Democratic Party of Germany.

Stefan Dragićević

Die Geister aus der VergangenheitThe Spirits of the Past

Die größten Rivalitäten in der deutschen Politik sind seit den 1930er Jahren die Nationalisten und diejenigen, die den Nationalismus verurteilen. Nach dem Fall des Dritten Reiches wird der Nachfolger der NSDAP die NPD, die weiterhin Ideen verbreitet, die Nationalismus, Rassismus und Antisemitismus fördern. Aufgrund massiver Zuwanderungen aus dem nahen Osten und Unruhen in Europa haben die Nationalisten von der deutschen Bevölkerung mehr Unterstützung erhalten, da sie der Idee folgen: „Deutschland für Deutsche”. Andererseits galten die linken Parteien als der größte Feind des Nationalsozialismus. Sie fördern die Meinungsfreiheit und wollen Flüchtlingen helfen, sich in die deutsche Gesellschaft zu integrieren. Es gibt viele Grundschulen oder Kindergärten, die sich an Kinder aus dem Nahen Osten richten, in denen sie etwas über die deutsche Kultur und die deutsche Sprache lernen.

Since the 1930s, the grandest rivalries in the German political scene have been those between the nationalists and their opponents. After the fall of the Third Reich, the National Democratic Party became the successor party to the previous Nazi party, and continued to spread nationalist, racist, and anti-Semitic ideologies. Due to mass immigration from the Near East, as well as a general unrest in Europe, the NDP has gained increasing support from the German public, who follow their idea of keeping “Germany for Germans.” On the other side, the German left-wing parties have functioned as the greatest opponents to national socialism. These groups support freedom of opinion and want to assist the integration of incoming refugees into German society. There are many kindergartens and elementary schools that devote special attention to educating students from the Near East on German language and culture.

In der Mitte des Aufklebers, den ich beschrieben habe, befindet sich ein Satz, der in zwei Teile unterteilt ist: Im ersten Teil heißt es: „Geld für die Oma”, während im zweiten Teil heißt es: „Statt für Sinti und Roma“. Die beiden Teile der Sitzung sind in Gelb und Schwarz hervorgehoben. In Verbindung mit der roten, ovalen Form des NPD-Logos werden die Farben der deutschen Flagge dargestellt. Das mag naiv aussehen, aber es ist umstritten, ob es angebracht ist, deutsche Symbole in der Öffentlichkeit zu zeigen, da sie meist mit der Nazizeit in Verbindung gebracht werden. Im Hintergrund des Aufklebers ist eine alte Frau zu sehen, die verängstigt die Worte „Sinti & Roma“ ansieht. Sinti und Roma sind Menschen, die vom indischen Subkontinent abstammen, und sich vor Jahrhunderten in Europa niedergelassen haben. Während der Nazizeit haben sie zusammen mit der jüdischen Bevölkerung große Verluste erlitten. Darüber hinaus kann der Begriff Sinti und Roma als Pejorativ für Flüchtlinge aus Zentralasien und dem Nahen Osten verwendet werden, die ähnliche körperliche Merkmale aufweisen. Der Zweck des Aufklebers besteht darin, die Gefühle der Menschen hervorzurufen und sie auf eine schlechte finanzielle Lage der alten Bevölkerung aufmerksam zu machen, die von den ankommenden Flüchtlingen bermutlich verursacht würde.

In the middle of the first sticker is a sentence that has been divided into two parts: the first portion translates to “money for Grandma,” while the second translates to “instead of for Sinti and Roma.” Both sentences are emboldened with black and yellow highlights. Alongside the red, oval form of the NPD logo, the colors of the German flag are depicted. It remains controversial as to whether it is appropriate to fly the German flag in public, due to the lingering connection of German national symbols to the country’s Nazi past. In the background of the sticker is an old woman, looking worriedly at the words “Sinti and Roma.” Sinti and Roma are groups of people stemming from the Indian subcontinent, having settled in Europe over hundreds of years ago. During Nazi rule, these groups suffered great losses alongside the Jewish population. Since then, the terms Sinti and Roma have been used as pejoratives for refugees from Central Asia and the Near East, who bear similar physical characteristics to those of the Sinti and Roma. The goal of this sticker is to bring attention to the financial woes of Germany’s elder population, and to blame it on the arrival of refugees.

Der zweite Aufkleber steht für ein gelbes Verkehrszeichen, das in zwei gleiche Rechtecke unterteilt ist. Im oberen Rechteck steht „Freiheit“, im zweiten ein gekreuztes Wort „Islamismus“. Auch wenn es kein Party-Logo gibt, kommt dieses von einer rechten Partei, die die genetische und ethnische „Reinheit“ der Nation fördert, die sich erst kürzlich vereinigt hat!

The second sticker represents a yellow traffic sign, divided into two rectangles. In the top rectangle stands the word “freedom,” in the second the crossed-out word “Islam.” Even without a party logo, it is clear that this sticker was produced by a right-wing group that supports the genetic and ethnic “purity” that initially brought the German nation together.

Obwohl die Unterstützung der Rechtsextremisten in der Bevölkerung zugenommen hat, stimmt die Mehrheit der deutschen Bevölkerung nach wie vor zu, dass es, wie auf dem dritten Aufkleber geschrieben, “Kein Kiez für Nazis” geben sollte.

Despite the growth in support for the extremist right-wing parties in the German population, the majority still agrees that there is “no place for Nazis” (the original German phrase makes use of the word “Kiez,” a word for “neighborhood” that is specific to Berlin and other parts of Northern Germany).

Bevor die massiven Migrationswellen aus dem nahen Osten einsetzten, waren die rechten Parteien nicht sehr beliebt. Andererseits, wie auf dem Aufkleber zu sehen ist, nimmt die Popularität jener Parteien, insbesondere der AfD zu, die nur fünf Jahre nach ihrer Gründung massive Unterstützung von Deutschen erhalten haben, die in irgendeiner Weise die Bedeutung der deutschen Sprache unterstützen Reinheit. Es ist wichtig zu erwähnen, dass der Begriff ,,Reinheit“ die Ansicht vertritt, dass nordische und germanische Sprachen und Nationen im Vergleich zu anderen überlegen sind und über andere Nationen herrschen sollten. Obwohl es illegal ist, solche Ideen zu bewerben, wie auf den Aufklebern zu sehen, gibt es immer noch Anhänger der nationalsozialistischen Ideologie, die in den kommenden Jahren noch zunehmen werden.

Before the massive waves of immigration from the Near East, the right-wing parties in Germany had little support. However, as these stickers make clear, the popularity of these parties has grown—particularly for the AfD (Alternative for Germany), who have amassed a grand level of support in only five years after their conception. Like other right-wing parties, the AfD stands for the so-called “purity” in Germany. It is important to mention that the term “purity” is tied to Nordic and German languages and nations, and suggests that they are superior to others. Although it is illegal to advertise such ideas, posters and stickers with nationalistic messages and ideologies are ever present, and their number will only grow in the coming years.

Sophie Lehmann

Antifascist stickers from multiple languages

Die Aufkleber, die ich beschreiben will, befassen sich hauptsachlich mit dem Thema Antifaschismus. Der Antifaschismus hat in Deutschland eine historische und heutige Signifikanz, weil die rechtsextreme Politik in Europa seit dem 19. Jahrhundert ein laufendes Problem ist. Diese Bewegung wird noch wichtiger, weil das Land in der Vergangenheit eine faschistische Regierung erlebt hat. Das war in Deutschland der Fall, also sind die antifaschistischen Botschaften sehr direkt und kraftvoll. Bevor der zweite Weltkrieg begann, hatte es auch Probleme mit Rechtsextremismus gegeben. Rechtsextremismus verschwand nicht, nachdem die Nazis gefallen waren, das heißt, die Probleme sind nie verschwunden. Die Aufkleber, die ich ausgewählt habe, befassen sich mit Antifaschismus und benutzen auch andere Sprachen als Deutsch. Der Antifaschismus unterstützt eine Mischung aus Identitäten. Der Faschismus fördert normalerweise die Idee, dass es nur einen richtigen Weg zu sein gibt (Jackson).

The stickers that I’ll be describing deal mainly with antifascism. This movement has both a historical and a present significance in Germany, because the right-wing extremist politics have been an ongoing problem in Europe since the 19th century. The movement becomes particularly strong when a country that has experienced a fascist government in the past. Such is the case in Germany, and today the antifascist messages are very direct and powerful. Before the Second World War began, there had already been a problem with right-wing extremism. It did not disappear with the fall of the Nazis, either—such problems have never faded. The stickers that I’ve chosen follow a theme of antifascism and use German as well as other languages, as the movement is supported by a variety of identities. Contrarily, fascism tends to support the idea that there is only one true way to be (Jackson).

Ich habe diesen Aufkleber als Hauptaufkleber gewählt, weil ich der Text in italienisch und das Bild der Unruhen sehr relevant für die Diskussion über verschiedene Identitäten und Antifaschismus gefunden hat. Der Aufkleber ist rechteckig mit Rot und Schwarz als Hauptfarben. Das Bild enthält auch die Farben Weiß und Gelb. Im Vordergrund steht ein Text auf Italienisch im Weiß, der, wenn man das übersetzt heißt „Wir sind alle Antifaschisten.“ Im Hintergrund des Bildes ist die Farbpalette warm und dunkel. Die Farben sind von Feuer und Unruhen. Insgesamt erinnert das Bild der Unruhen und der Farbpalette an die neueste antifaschistische Aktion. Der Text in italienisch erinnert an historische antifaschistische Aktionen wie aus dem zweiten Weltkrieg, weil Italien auch in der Vergangenheit eine faschistische Regierung erlebt hat.

I’ve chosen these stickers, because I’ve found that its use of Italian and imagery of unrest are very relevant for the discussion of various identities and antifascism. The sticker is square with red and black and includes also white and yellow. In the foreground stands the Italian text in white, which translates to “we are all antifascists.” In the background is a color palette that is both warm and dark. The colors are those of fire and unrest. The image and its colors call to mind the recent antifascist action. The linguistic context also calls to mind Italy’s historical dealings with a fascist government.

Dieser Aufkleber mischt das französische Motto “Liberté, Égalité Fraternité” mit einer Anti-AFD-Nachricht. Weil Alternative für Deutschland eine relativ rechtsextreme Partei ist, spiegelt die Farbauswahl des ersten antifaschistischen Aufklebers: Rot, Weiß und Schwarz.

This sticker combines the French motto “Liberté, Égalité Fraternité” with an anti-AFD message. [AFD stands for the German Alternative für Deutschland political party.] Because of the AFD party’s right extremist platform, the color selection here mirrors that of the first antifascist stickers: red, white and black.

Auf diesem Aufkleber, gibt es Texte auf Deutsch und Englisch. Dieser Aufkleber vereint Botschaften von deutschen und globalen Antifaschismus und gegen die Idee von dem Suprematismus der Weißen. Die Farben dieses Aufklebers spiegeln den Farben auf den anderen Aufklebern mit der gleichen Nachricht. Die sind natürlich Rot, Schwarz und Weiß.

The text on this sticker there is in both English and German. This sticker stands with German and global antifascism against the ideas of white supremacy. The colors of this sticker mirror those of the other stickers with similar messages. They are, of course, red, white and black.

Die Verwendung ähnlicher Bilder und verschiedener Sprachen in diesen antifaschistischen Aufklebern zeigt die moderne und historische antifaschistische Ideologie. Diese Ideologie ist Widerstand gegen die Vorherrschaft der Rasse und der Kultur und für die Unterstützung der Verschiedenheit. Diese Ideologie unterstützt auch natürlich die internationale Solidarität, die Informationen in vielen verschiedenen Sprachen erfordert.

The use of similar images and diverse languages in antifascist stickers shows both the modern and historical antifascist ideology. This is one of resistance against racism and of support for diversity. This ideology also stands for international solidarity, reflecting the use of several languages to get their message across.

Work Cited

Jackson, Paul: “Anti-Fascism in Historical Context.” Political Extremism and Radicalism in the Twentieth Century, Cengage Learning (EMEA) Ltd, 2018.


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