Archive for the '“The Process is the Product”' Category

“The People’s Archive” instructional notes

Below are the notes I sent to the Weaving the Streets & People’s Archives team members today, focusing on the People’s Archive component of the project.

“The struggle of man against power is the struggle of memory against forgetting.”

– Milan Kundera, The Book of Laughter and Forgetting

“The archivist, even more than the historian and the political scientist, tends to be scrupulous about his neutrality, and to see his job as a technical job, free from the nasty world of political interest: a job of collecting, sorting, preserving, making available, the records of the society.  But I will stick by what I have said about other scholars, and argue that the archivist, in subtle ways, tends to perpetuate the political and economic status quo simply by going about his ordinary business.  His supposed neutrality is, in other words, a fake.  If so, the rebellion of the archivist against his normal role is not, as so many scholars fear, the politicizing of a neutral craft, but the humanizing of an inevitably political craft.  Scholarship in society is inescapably political.  Our choice is not between being political or not.  Our choice is to follow the politics of the going order, that is, to do our job within the priorities and directions set by the dominant forces of society, or else to promote those human values of peace, equality, and justice, which our present society denies.”

– Howard Zinn, “Secrecy, Archives, and the Public Interest”

Let me begin with something John Collins has used to describe the Weave blog, which is the act of weaving together “texts” and “contexts.”  In Latin, the word textus means “1. construct with elaborate care; 2. plait (together); and 3. weave.”  Likewise, in Latin, contextus means “1. compose, connect, link, combine; 2. make, join, form; and 3. weave, entwine, braid, twist together.”

In literary theory and cultural studies, “texts” are any sort of phenomena that signify meaning, such as written publications, visual works of art, music, videos, oral interviews, etc. as well as clothing styles, architectural design, community-based murals, solidarity gatherings, etc.  Coming from a printmaking perspective, I myself tend to focus on hand-held physical texts or “artifacts,” such as street art stickers, political posters, flyers, leaflets, and photographs of these items (though in some cases, these physical artifacts are ephemeral by design).

Texts tell stories.  It’s up to you to figure out what those stories are.  One of the goals of WSPA is to identify the texts that you think are important and tell the stories surrounding those texts.  That’s the Weaving the Streets blogging component of our project, the contextualization.

The People’s Archive will also document the creative ways ordinary people make use of public space to express themselves.  The archive is intended to be a varied repository of selected texts that we gather to share with others.  It will consist of physical artifacts, as I described above, that will be scanned, catalogued, and added to the gallery’s Street Art Graphics digital archive (  Take a look at some of the entries to get a sense of the cataloguing that’s been done.  It’s a work-in-progress, so some items are more thoroughly catalogued than others.  Non-physical artifacts, such as “born digital” documentary photographs, video or sound-based interviews, etc., will also be catalogued as texts and will reside on the WSPA group blog (  In some cases, physical artifacts will appear in both the Street Art Graphics digital archive and the WSPA group blog.

For each physical artifact or born digital item, you will be asked to identify:

  • the creator (artist, organization, sponsor, contributor, or unknown)
  • the geographic location where you found it (be as specific as possible).  For those of you with smart phones, you can even write down GPS coordinates for future reference.
  • a 150-200 word description (what it is about, why it was made, and who the intended audience might be).  Description fields are the most difficult but also the most fun.  You’ll do research to unlock the mysteries surrounding your artifacts or born digital items.  For examples in the Street Art Graphics digital archive, check out the description fields in the German “St. Pauli” stickers and the American “night raiders.”

Cataloguing information is known as “metadata,” or data about data.  Each artifact or born digital item will be catalogued using the fields listed above.  In addition, subject fields for each item will be populated by a university librarian.  Subject fields are tricky and need to follow certain guidelines determined by the Library of Congress and others.  That way, our work will fit into the larger body of knowledge for use by diverse audiences.

Alums can mail physical artifacts to me at the gallery, and students in the field can do the same or bring them back to campus next fall.  The gallery will scan each item and use your metadata to add to the digital archive and/or group blog.  John and I will leave it up to you to decide how many artifacts or born digital items you’d like to incorporate into your research, but we’re imagining somewhere between four to six.  This work is known as digital curation, which is like selecting artworks for an exhibition, for example.  Each of you will be curating your own show, so to speak.  You’ll want to choose your four to six items carefully so that they tell the story you want to share with others.  That is your role as an archivist/activist.

I write about street art stickers on my research blog called Stickerkitty, and for your reference I have listed four links below to posts that weave together texts and contexts.  You’ll see how I often come across some unknown thing I find on the streets and then work to uncover the story behind it.

A few other references to archivism and activism are listed below.

Lile, Grace.  “Archives for Change: Activist Archives, Archival Activism.”

“Occupy Wall Street from the Streets to the Archives” (New York Times, May 2, 2012).

See also Ben McCorkle’s “Annotated Obama Poster” for his analysis of the visual rhetoric behind the Obama HOPE poster at

“Forward to Recovery” sticker


I recently found a great political sticker about capitalism and the economy that looks very much like an I.W.W. stickerette due to its size, medium, and message.  It states “Forward to Recovery – Increased Activity – Price Rise – Employment.”  We see “Business” dressed as a fat cat in a fancy suit and pinstripe pants racing forward while being dragged down by the heavy anchor of “Low Wages.”  The artist’s name is difficult to decipher; the signature looks like “Terry Costello,” but I can’t find anything similar online or in any of my I.W.W.-related books and articles.  The reason I think the sticker comes from the I.W.W., however, is because it’s glued onto an envelope dated September 30, 1933.


The envelope was addressed to Kenneth N. Rinker, 417 W. First St., Greensburg, Indiana, and it cost three cents at the time to send through the mail.  There is no return address on the front or back of the envelope.  The envelope was sealed when I acquired it.  I opened it only to find a blank sheet of white paper….

I thought I might find mention of the “Costello” artist in Franklin Rosement’s “A Short Treatise on Wobbly Cartoons” in the newer 1988 edition of Rebel Voices: An IWW Anthology by Joyce L. Kornbluh.  I also checked “Wobbly” – 80 Years of Rebel Art, a catalogue that accompanied an exhibition at the Labor Archives and Research Center in San Francisco in 1987.  No luck.  I learned about many other I.W.W. artists, though, and discovered a few other sources to check later, including “The Iconographics of American Labor,” a chapter in From the Knights of Labor to the New World Order: Essays on Labor and Culture by Paul Buhle, and Images of American Radicalism by Paul Buhle and Edmund Sullivan.  (As a side note, in the late 1960s Paul Buhle founded the S.D.S. journal Radical America, which features a story about the I.W.W. in Volume 1, Number 2, and even mentions stickerettes!  I have a theory that S.D.S. stickers were inspired by stickerettes, which I plan to write about in the near future….  I need to connect the dots, and Franklin Rosemont and Paul Buhle are two key figures with interests in both the I.W.W. and S.D.S.)

Anyway, back to the mysterious envelope.  The little NRA sticker on the lower right states “NRA Member – U.S. – We Do Our Part” and shows a blue eagle clutching a gear, symbolizing industry, and lightning, symbolizing power.  You can read more about the NRA blue eagle logo here.


I have other NRA stickers in the Street Art Graphics digital archive, but they aren’t from the National Rifle Association.  The early NRA stickers, which Arline Wolfe catalogued last year, were, as she wrote, “from the National Recovery Administration, a U.S. government agency established by President Franklin D. Roosevelt to stimulate business recovery through fair-practice codes during the Great Depression.  The NRA was an essential element in the National Industrial Recovery Act (June 1933), which authorized the President to institute industry-wide codes intended to eliminate unfair trade practices, reduce unemployment, establish minimum wages and maximum hours, and guarantee the right of labour to bargain collectively, according to”  The Social Welfare History Project Web site also describes the NRA here.

Weaving the Streets & People’s Archive – December 2013

Our first Weaving the Streets & People’s Archive press release.


Weaving the Streets & People’s Archive (WSPA) is a multi-faceted, interdisciplinary collaborative project that offers St. Lawrence University students, alumni, and others the opportunity to be part of a dynamic, global, investigative blog and a digital archive that document the creative range of ways in which ordinary people make use of public space to express themselves.  The goal is to bring together examples from a wide range of cultures and experiences so that people can build bridges, explore lines of solidarity and difference, and learn from the experiences of others.  The WSPA project draws on two existing initiatives with the goal of pushing each one forward while “weaving” them together in ways that will deepen their educational impact at St. Lawrence and increase their impact beyond the campus:

  • Street Art Graphics is a digital image archive project initiated in 2004 by Catherine Tedford, director of the Richard F. Brush Art Gallery.  The archive is available through the gallery’s Web site and features nearly 2,000 examples of street art stickers and street art graphics from Canada, England, Germany, Russia, Spain, and the United States.  Items are scanned and catalogued on an item-by-item basis for in-depth online access and research.
  • The Weave, headquartered in the Global Studies Department, is an independent news media project created in 2006 with the primary mission of spotlighting stories that are not receiving sufficient public attention. The project is directed by Professor and Chair of Global Studies Dr. John Collins and Jana Morgan ’07, National Director for Publish What You Pay (USA).  The Weave features investigative blogs as well as a video archive of short, provocative responses from artists, scholars, activists, and journalists to a series of “Big Questions” (e.g., “What is today’s most underreported story?”).  The Weaving the Streets blog can be found on the Weave at

Funded by a two-year Humanities Grant from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, WSPA will be implemented each semester by two to four students and/or young alumni in “cohorts” starting in the fall of 2013.  We are pleased to announce that four recent alumni have been selected for cohort #1, including Derek King ’12, Steve Peraza ’06, and Jordan Pescrillo ’12, all currently living and working in Buffalo, New York, and Łukasz Niparko ’13, from Poznan, Poland.  Two students who will be participating in off-campus study programs in the spring of 2014 have been selected for cohort #2.  Carolyn Dellinger ’16 will be working in London, England, and Sheila Murray ’15 will be working in San Jose, Costa Rica.

Cohort #1

Three St. Lawrence University alumni have begun collaborating on The Buffalo Exchange, a field research and blogging project that exemplifies the philosophy behind Weaving the Streets & People’s ArchiveThe Buffalo Exchange will help contextualize the visual and aural materials the alumni are collecting as part of their fieldwork.  A selection of these materials will be digitized, catalogued, geospatially tagged, and included in the Street Art Graphics digital archive, along with a condensed version of the contextual information provided in the blogs.


(image credit: Mike Puma from Views of Buffalo)

Steve Peraza ‘06, a Ph.D. candidate in History at the University of Buffalo, is a veteran Weave contributor who has been blogging at The Poverty Report since 2008.  For The Buffalo Exchange, he will focus on the creation of community gardens on previously abandoned land in Buffalo.  As he documents these projects photographically, he will provide investigative blog content that examines contextual issues such as community empowerment, gentrification, and urban agriculture.

Derek King ‘12, an architectural historian with Preservation Studios (a Buffalo-based consulting firm specializing in historical preservation), will bring a keen eye for architectural detail and urban planning to The Buffalo Exchange.  His work will focus on the relationship between the city of Buffalo’s large-scale urban development initiatives and the many small-scale, grassroots efforts to revitalize communities that have been shaped by poverty and deindustrialization.  As a citizen journalist, he will seek out voices, examples, and lessons that may be otherwise left out of mainstream news and official political narratives.  Derek hopes to show that it is not big development projects that are “saving” or even defining this city’s revival, but the people there who live, play, and create who are driving Buffalo’s resurgence.

Jordan Pescrillo ‘12, who is based in the education sector through her work with ABLE (AmeriCorps Builds Lives through Education) and the International Institute in Buffalo, brings to The Buffalo Exchange a strong background in working with refugees from Nepal and elsewhere.  Her contributions to the project will focus on creating alternative and more accessible means through which members of refugee communities in Buffalo, particularly young people, can articulate their own perspectives on local issues and “speak back to the headlines.”  Her investigative blogging will provide detailed context surrounding the photographic and spoken-word materials that form the core of her fieldwork.


In addition, Łukasz Niparko ’13, based out of Poznań, Poland, will examine aspects of housing and urban development through the lens of Rozbrat, one of the oldest occupied squats in the country, and Od:zysk [From: profit], a newer squat located near the historic market center in Poznań.  Łukasz will explore the squats’ initiatives for social change through street art, workshops, and other activities in response to the privatization and commercialization of urban spaces.  Lukasz also writes on the Weave for SOLIDARITY Avenue.

Aleje Solidarnosci

Cohort #2

Carolyn Dellinger ’16 began working on the Street Art Graphics digital archive in the fall of 2013, focusing on a rare collection of street art stickers dating from the late 1980s for the Antifa Jugendfront (Antifascist Youth Front) in Berlin, Germany.  She was trained in Photoshop to create master image files for each sticker and has also begun creating metadata for Description fields.  In the spring of 2014, Carolyn will study the wide range of innovative street art murals in London by such artists as Bansky and Space Invader to see how they relate to and comment upon socio-political issues facing England, such as racial tensions and unemployment.


Sheila Murray ’15 chose to study in Costa Rica for the opportunity to pursue her interests in global studies, Spanish language, and environmental justice.  Her experience working with the local GardenShare non-profit organization and as a blogger for the Ecological Sustainability Landscape’s Summer at the Garden will be put to good use in the context of WSPA.  While abroad, Sheila will examine some of Costa Rica’s bold environmental actions, such as being the first climate neutral country in the world, from the ground up!

Stickerkitty Can Haz Metadata

I am learning how to use ContentDM (CDM), the digital image management software that the SLU gallery uses to catalogue its internal permanent collection database and other published collections.  It’s a program that’s geared more toward library special collections and historical societies, and so it’s not that great in terms of presenting large works of art on a monitor or wall screen.  (By contrast, the gallery’s Canadian Inuit art collection is presented in Drupal; the images appear almost full screen and are much clearer.)  What’s cool about learning CDM, however, is that I can now add misc. stickers here and there to the Street Art Graphics digital archive without having to ask Arline Wolfe, the arts metadata technician, for help and whose plate is full enough as it is!

Last week, I added four stickers by City Kitty, and this week I added 26 new St. Pauli stickers.  Believe it or not, there are now 132 different St. Pauli stickers in my collection.  That is one creative club!  Many St. Pauli stickers employ adbusting and culture jamming techniques, or what Guy Debord, a French Situationist, called détournement.  Some of these are illustrated in my previous posts, St. Pauli football club stickers and FC St. Pauli stickers #2.  Here are a few other examples below.

2013_addtl_St Pauli_007

2013_addtl_St Pauli_005

In Hamburg isst Braun-Weiss (Hamburg is brown [and] white), Cookie Monster, a character from the American television show The Muppets, is eating a chocolate chip cookie.  The black and white crest on his blue shirt is for St. Pauli’s rival, the Hamburger Sport-Verein (HSV) football club, and so this sticker is poking fun at St. Pauli.


The following American TV and movie characters are represented in the St. Pauli stickers: Beavis & Butthead, Cookie Monster, Daffy Duck, the Gorillaz, Hello Kitty, Popeye, Homer Simpson, and “Taz,” the Tasmanian Devil in Looney Tunes cartoons.  The poster from the movie Jaws in the sticker below is another example of adbusting and culture jamming, and in this case the St. Pauli shark is going after the ship that is the crest for the FC Hansa Rostock.


Plus, who is is this guy?  #notmygeneration…. hehe.


FC St. Pauli stickers #2

I did a little more research and polished my previous blog post on St. Pauli stickers for two reasons: 1.) I needed a shorter, condensed version without links to use in the Street Art Graphics digital archive, and 2.) I will use this version in the traveling exhibition, Re-Writing the Streets: The International Language of Stickers.  I can also use this exercise to show students the differences and similarities among a blog post, metadata for a digital archive, and an exhibition text panel.


Hamburg, the German port city home to the St. Pauli football club (Fußball St. Pauli or FC St. Pauli), hosts a sports team well known for its outspoken anti-racist, anti-fascist, anti-sexist, and anti-homophobic politics and its staunchly progressive social activism.  Founded in 1910, the club is located in the working-class district along the docks near the Reeperbahn red-light district, and for the past thirty years has maintained a certain cult following across Europe, initially attracting radicals, squatters, dockers, and prostitutes in the 1980s, and later, anarchists, punks, bikers, anti-fascists, and other politicized groups.  Known as the “pirates of the league,” the club has adopted a number of shipyard-related visual icons, including the Jolly Roger flag’s skull and crossbones, which is the unofficial crest and seen everywhere, as well as anchors, galleons, and sword brandishing buccaneers.  St. Pauli was the first team in Germany to ban right-wing activities and displays at its stadium, in response to hooligan fascists and neo-Nazis in the 1980s and ‘90s that were infiltrating matches across the country, fighting rival teams and police, and causing a great deal of violence and damage.  The sticker “St. Pauli-fans gegen Rechts!” or “St. Pauli fans against the Right!” has been widely produced and distributed and is said to have sold over two million copies.  Variants of “St. Pauli is brown [and] white,” the team’s home and away colors, are also common.  Many St. Pauli stickers portray the revolutionary guerrilla leader, Ernesto “Che” Guevara.  Others incorporate ad-busting techniques and similar forms of culture jamming, as seen in the appropriation of popular television and cartoon characters such as Homer Simpson, Hello Kitty, and Beavis and Butthead.



One of St. Pauli’s closest rival teams, the wealthier Hamburger Sport-Verein (HSV or H$V), utilizes a blue, white, and black diamond crest that is often mocked in St. Pauli stickers.



Vote Republican 1926 sticker

I recently came across a U.S. political sticker from Iowa in 1926 that is one of the first of its kind, from what I’ve seen, that isn’t an I.W.W. Wobbly labor union stickerette (see previous posts on I.W.W. stickerettes).  What’s interesting, however, is how Ralph Chaplin, a 1910s-era I.W.W. key artist/agitator, talked about printed labels on various fruit and vegetable cartons that helped inspire him to create political stickers.  I’ll dig up those references for a later post.


Antifa Jugendfront stickers from Infoladen Daneben

One of my students at SLU, Carolyn Dellinger ’16, is starting to catalogue the Antifa Jugendfront stickers from Infoladen Daneben that I scanned over the summer (see Berlin-based sticker collections in previous post).  From 79 original raw scans, I came up with a total of 48 edited image files consisting of 16 complete stickers, 4 full sheets of “pre-Photoshop” color-separated stickers, and various individual color-separated stickers and overlays.  Carolyn also created seven image files that are diptychs or triptychs to show the color separations side by side.  The 54 image files in this set can be viewed on my Flickr page for Stickerkitty’s collection (uncatalogued).


This is the first time I’ll be working with a student on more advanced cataloguing, and so it’s sort of a trial run for future Weaving the Streets & People’s Archive (WSPA) projects.  One of the long-term goals for WSPA is to develop a process to train students and others on how to gather and catalogue examples of street art for a digital archive.  The first step in cataloguing is to create standard metadata fields and terminologies.  (Metadata is data about data.)  In many cases, fields will be populated with the same metadata (i.e., creator = unknown, time span = 1991, geographic location = Berlin, Germany, etc.).  Students will then complete the more difficult fields, such as description, subject, key words, and themes.

Below is the outline for cataloguing the Antifa Jugendfront stickers.  Information in [brackets] will be used as is for every record.  Carolyn will create new metadata for the fields marked in bold.

  • Title [Antifa Jugendfront – and all or most of the main text on the sticker using a logical, “natural language” approach in approximately 10 to 20 words].  We’re using “Antifa Jugendfront” at the beginning of each record in order for the stickers to appear together in the digital archive.
  • Title-Alternative (any additional text that doesn’t fit in Title)
  • Title-Translation (try Google Translate and see what you get)
  • Creator [unknown]
  • Contributor [Antifa Jugendfront (Antifa Youth Front)]
  • Source [Infoladen Daneben, Berlin, Germany]
  • Time Span [1991]
  • Geographic Location [Berlin, Germany]
  • Language [German]
  • Class [graphic arts]
  • Type [sticker, spucki]
  • Format/Medium [offset lithograph – black and red ink on yellow paper]
  • Description (will need to create guidelines)
  • Curator’s Statement – (CT will write – mention both sets of individual stickers and paired stickers)
  • Key Words (will need to create guidelines)
  • Subject (Arline will do)
  • Themes (see attached handout)
  • Notes [Scanned by Catherine Tedford, August 2013.]
  • Cataloguer, Date [Carolyn Dellinger, SLU ‘16]
  • Digital Image File Name (original) (use the edited image files you created)
  • Digital Image File Name (new ContentDM name) (to be determined later)

I did some research last week on Antifa Jugendfront and was surprised and delighted to find that several examples of the stickers we’re cataloguing are also available online at the International Institute of Social History, based in Amsterdam.  I’ve never come across street art graphics catalogued to this extent, and for the geeks out there, the records have call numbers, as well as super geek MARC (MAchine-Readable Cataloging) standards metadata (which stopped Arline in her tracks).

Screen Shot 2013-10-13 at 11.03.34 AM

The sticker Gegen Sexismus und Frauen-Unterdrückung ( is included in the IISH catalogue, but in this case it’s represented as a poster at 29.5 x 42 cm.  It’s also dated ca. 1989, so that confirms the time span we have listed in our database.

Screen Shot 2013-10-13 at 11.09.09 AM

A full sheet of stickers is also included in the IISH catalogue, measuring 30.5 x 43.5 cm before they were trimmed to sticker size.  See

Infoladen full sheet

Berlin-based sticker collections

I went to Berlin this past August to scan street art stickers from Infoladen Daneben and the Archiv der Jugendkulturen, contacts I made from my earlier trip to the city in May-June through a faculty research grant from the German Academic Exchange Service.  I must have spent ten hours during the course of three days scanning stickers….


The first set of ~30 rare, original stickers from Infoladen Daneben dated back to the early 1990s and were all printed in black and red on yellow paper, though they didn’t have any sort of glue or adhesive on the back.


They’re actually called spuckis, and from what I’ve been told, you just lick the back and slap ‘em up!  The spuckis I’ve seen before tended to be fairly small with simple text and graphics, though a few similar contemporary spuckis are for sale on the Impact Punk Rock Mail Order Web site.  This fall semester, I’m going to have a student help me catalogue the ones from Infoladen Daneben for the Street Art Graphics archive.  The older spuckis were much larger, and while some were pasted intact on sheets of paper, others had been cut up so that what would have been printed in black were pasted on one page, and what would have been printed in red were on another page.  I.e., “pre-Photoshop” color separations for future print runs.


It looks like the same text, “Kampf dem Faschismus! (Fight against Fascism!), was used on these two different spuckis.

Infoladen_daneben_08-13_057 Infoladen_daneben_08-13_001

I also scanned close to 500 stickers that are housed at the Archiv der Jugendkulturen.  People from the Reclaim Your City collective donated a few thousand original stickers to the Archiv dating from the early 2000s to present day.  On this trip, I primarily focused on socio-political stickers, as well as a small sampling of stickers on street art and street culture (graffiti, music, clothing, etc.).  It will be a much more extensive job to catalogue these stickers, but at least for now I have good scans.  More on this group of stickers to follow.


A Sticker A Day: Western History and Pop Culture through Street Art Stickers

I’ve got a new angle for my sticker book – to select 365 stickers and tell a story each day with a sticker.  I worked on January today, and here below is what I have so far.  Dates in bold mean I know of a sticker in my collection that could match the event.  In some cases, there is more than one event, so I’ll have to choose later.  Dates in italics mean I’ve already found the sticker image file to match the event.  Ultimately, I’ll write a few paragraphs for each day/sticker of the year.

A Sticker a Day: Western History and Pop Culture through Street Art Stickers

January 1: The beginning of the Internet as we know it today; The ARPANET officially changes to using the Internet Protocol, creating the Internet (1983); Ellis Island opens in the U.S. (1892); European Central Bank established (1998); Euro adopted by 11 countries (1999)

January 2: World War II: Nuremberg, Germany is severely bombed by Allied forces. (1945); Ronald Reagan sworn in as Governor of California (1967)

January 3: The last original weekday Peanuts comic strip is published (2000)

January 4: The New York Stock Exchange opens its first permanent headquarters at 10-12 Broad near Wall Street (1865)

January 5: The Ford Motor Company announces an eight-hour workday and a minimum wage of $5 for a day’s labor (1914) (sticker done)

January 6: President Franklin D. Roosevelt delivers his Four Freedoms speech in the State of the Union address (1941)

January 7: The Senate trial in the impeachment of U.S. President Bill Clinton begins (1999)

January 8: The trial of seven men accused of illegal entry into Democratic Party headquarters at Watergate begins (1973)

January 9: Apple CEO Steve Jobs unveils the first iPhone (2007)

January 10: Bush announces “The New Way Forward” for troop surge in Iraq (2007) (No Blood for Oil sticker – done)


January 11: Immigrant textile works in Lawrence, Massachusetts, go on strike when wages are reduced in response to a mandated shortening of the work week (1912)

January 12: The Royal Aeronautical Society is formed in London (1866)

January 13: Johnny Cash performs live at Folsom State Prison (1968)

January 14: The Human Be-In takes place in San Francisco, California’s Golden Gate Park, launching the Summer of Love (1967)

January 15: The Coca-Cola Company, then known as the Pemberton Medicine Company, is incorporated in Atlanta, Georgia (1889)

January 16: The United States ratifies the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, authorizing Prohibition in the United States one year after ratification (1919)

January 17: Matt Drudge breaks the story of the Bill Clinton-Monica Lewinsky affair on his website (1998)

January 18: Martin Luther King, Jr. Day is officially observed for the first time in all 50 states (1993)

January 19: The United States Senate votes against joining the League of Nations (1920)

January 20: George W. Bush State of the Union linking church and state (2004) (sticker – done)


January 21: Black Monday in worldwide stock markets. FTSE 100 had its biggest ever one-day points fall, European stocks closed with their worst result since the September 11 attacks in 2001, and Asian stocks drop as much as 14% (2008)

January 22: The Supreme Court of the United States delivers its decision in Roe v. Wade, legalizing elective abortion in all fifty states (1973)

January 23: President Richard Nixon announces that a peace accord has been reached in Vietnam (1973)

January 24: The United States Department of Homeland Security officially begins operation (2003)

January 25: Charles Manson and three female “Family” members are found guilty of the 1969 Tate-LaBianca murders (1971)

January 26: Birth of Angela Davis, U.S. political activist (1944) (2 stickers – done)



January 27: Arab Spring: The 2011 Yemeni revolution begins as over 16,000 protestors demonstrate in Sana’a (2011); Nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site begins with a one-kiloton bomb dropped on Frenchman Flat (1951); The trial of Guy Fawkes and his fellow conspirators began. They were executed on January 31 (1606)

January 28: United States troops leave Cuba with the exception of Guantanamo Bay Naval Base after being there since the Spanish-American War (1909)

January 29: In his State of the Union Address, President George W. Bush describes “regimes that sponsor terror” as an Axis of Evil, in which he includes Iraq, Iran and North Korea (2002)

January 30: Mahatma Gandhi is released from prison by Jan C. Smuts after been tried and sentenced to 2 months in jail earlier in the month. On the same day 40 years later in 1948 Gandhiji is assassinated (1908)

January 31: The Soviet Union exiles Leon Trotsky (1929)

Kreuzberg stickers – tagging geo-tagged images with words

For my new geo-tagging project, I’m trying to come up with a manageable number of consistent subject terms to describe what a sticker is about, i.e., what people in library and information science call creating an authority control or set of keywords (index terms).  One can go a little crazy in this endeavor, because there are so many comprehensive guides to refer to, such as the Library of Congress Subject Headings, the Getty Research Institute Art & Architecture Thesaurus, various ARTstor Subject Guides, and plain old common sense.  My goal is to narrow it down to about 20 keywords, and here is what I have so far (22): Animal Rights; Authority; Capitalism; Conflict/War; Demonstration/Protest; Economy; Education; Environment; Gender; Globalization; Government/Politics; Identity; Immigration; Labor; Music; Nationalism; Race/Ethnicity; Religion; Sports; Surveillance; Technology; and Urban Development (includes Anti-Tourism, Gentrification, Reclaim the Streets).  Or to keep it simple, in most cases I could just put Power/Control.

There are also other terms that I want to include that describe how a sticker functions and/or what rhetorical strategy was used to create it.  This list is much shorter and still needs work: Advertising/Publicity; Adbusting/Appropriation/Culture Jamming; Creative Expression; D-I-Y; Humor/Irony/Satire; Postal/Hello-My-Name-Is; and Tagging.

Here below, for example, is one sticker that I’ve tagged.  The title of the sticker, “Weissagung der Mieter” means “The Tenants’ Prophecy,” and the text reads “Erst wenn der letzte Mieter verdrängt, der letzte Stadtteil gentrifiziert, das letzte Stück Berlins verkauft ist, werdet ihr merken, dass man Stadt nicht ohne uns machen kann,” or roughly, “Only when the last tenants are displaced, the last quarter is gentrified, the last piece of Berlin is sold, you will realize that you can not do without our city.”  My initial tags included: Capitalism; Economy; and Urban Development (includes Anti-Tourism, Gentrification, Reclaim the Streets).  Since the sticker has a Web site listed on it,, I also included Advertising/Publicity.


When I went to the Web site, I learned that there is a group called “Kotti & Co” that was formed in May 2012 in the working class Kottbusser Tor district in Berlin-Kreuzberg, an area populated largely by residents from Turkey.  In fact, Berlin is the largest city of Turks outside of Turkey, according to Eva Spirova in an article entitled The Multicultural Kreuzberg on the blog Berlin: A Divided City.  Germany developed an official Turkish recruitment agreement in 1961, which has since brought in millions of guest workers.  The project has been “an unnecessary social, economic and political catastrophe” however, for the workers’ children and grandchildren who can’t find jobs and are often socially marginalized, according to Klaus Bade of the German Foundations on Integration and Migration.  For more information, see At Home In a Foreign Country: German Turks Struggle to Find Their Identity in Der Spiegel (November 2, 2011).

As a result of this research, I’ll now add these tags: Demonstration/Protest; Government/Politics; Identity; Immigration; Labor; Nationalism; Race/Ethnicity; and Religion.  This happens all the time – finding what at first glance appear to be modest little stickers with such powerful and far-reaching commentary!  It can be somewhat daunting….  I hope, though, that I’ll be able to assign stickers into various groups and the work will go a little faster.  Like these:



As a side note, another article, Graffiti and Street Art, on the blog above states that “…stickers and adhesives are not considered graffiti.”!



Flickr Photos

August 2022